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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.ncue.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/11634

Title: 學習障礙與一般能力學生口語和書寫表達能力之發展性研究
Authors: 葉靖雲
Contributors: 特殊教育學系
Keywords: 學習障礙;口語表達;書寫表達;Learning Disabilities;Oral Expression;Written Expression
Date: 2002-08
Issue Date: 2012-06-14T07:34:22Z
Abstract: 口語和書寫都是語言表達的核心技巧,隨著年齡的增長,兒童的語言表達能力也日趨成熟。口語和書寫在發展順序上一先一後,在發展的早期,一般兒童口語的表現優書寫,大約到小學中、高年級,書寫表達之表現超越了口語的模式而日趨流暢與複雜。學習障礙是一群聽說讀寫算等基本技巧的發展出現明顯困難且內在能力差異顯著的群體。過去的研究顯示這一類兒童之口語或書寫表達較同年齡的兒童遲緩,甚或出現嚴重的問題。本研究將學障學生語言表達的表現直接與一般能力學生做比較,研究的目的如下:首先,分別建立一般語文能力和學習障礙學生口語和書寫表達能力發展的描述性資料;其次,進行學生類型間的比較,以了解兩者語言表達技巧發展的異同處;再者,檢驗在一般語文能力學生和學障學生的語言發展上是否有口語和書寫表達的交互作用存在;最後,如果有口語、書寫的交互作用,釐清出現此作用的時間。研究對象為台中縣市、彰化、南投四縣市的小三到小六學習障礙學生,每個年級15 名,共計有60 位學障樣本。透過性別、班級、年齡的配對,每一位學障學生搭配一位智力與書寫表達能力正常的學生,此為一般語文能力樣本的來源,每個年級15 位,故一般語文能力學生的總數也是60 人。評量工具包括:一、客觀量化的口語、書寫表達評量工具,「兒童作文能力測驗」的「故事開頭」、「單圖」、「四格連環圖」三種記敘文的寫作提示同時作為口語和書寫表達的提示。二、透過「兒童作文能力測驗」的「造句」分測驗來測量低階的書寫技巧,這也是一種客觀量化的評量工具。三、主觀的口語、書寫表達品質評量工具,「語言表達評定量表」同時針對口語和書寫表達語言樣本給予品質的評定。四、透過「寫作策略量表」和「寫作的自我覺察表」來反映寫作者的策略知識和使用狀況,以及策略使用的監控和調整能力。就語言表達的品質而論,一般和學障學生皆隨年級的成長,口語或書寫表達的表現也愈好。客觀量化的書寫表達評量(包括造句和作文)結果亦顯示隨年級的成長書寫表現也愈好,不過客觀量化的口語表達表現未出現年級和表現的趨勢。不論主觀、客觀或是高階、低階的書寫表達表現,一般語文能力學生都明顯優於學障學生。在口語表達方面,一般能力學生在主觀評量上的表現較優,不過與學障間的差距小於書寫表達的表現;至於客觀量化的口語評量結果,則未因學生類型的差異而有明顯不同的表現。反映書寫表達歷程中策略知識、使用狀況、監控與調整能力之評量結果,不論在一般能力或學障學生身上都未見明顯的隨年級成長趨勢。寫作歷程中部份或整體的策略相關能力則有一般學生優於學障學生的趨勢。 Both oral and written expressions are the most basic language skills. As a child gets older, his/her abilities in language expression become more mature. The development of oral language is earlier than that of written language. At the earlier years, a child performs better in speaking than writing.. When he/she gets to late elementary school years, writing gradually outperforms speaking. Students with learning disabilities are a group of individuals with severe difficulties in learning basic skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, and math. Previous research indicated that the rates of growth of oral or written language of LD kids were slower than those of the other students. In the current research, language expression performance of LD students was compared with that of regular language ability students. The aims of this study were as following: Firstly, to collect the descriptive data of oral/written development of regular as well as LD students. Second, to compare across students types to realize the sameness and differences of language expression development of these students. Third, to exam whether interaction of speaking and writing did exist. And finally, when was the interaction of speaking and writing happening, if it did exist. The subjects of the study were grade 3 tograde 6 LD students from Taichung city, Taichung county, Nantao, and Chenghwa. There were 15 LD students in every grade, and totally 60 LD subjects. Each LD subject was matched with one regular language ability student on the condition of the same sex, class, and age. There were 15 regular students in each grade and totally 60 in all. The assessment instruments included: narrative paragraph writing stimuli, sentence construction test, the Language Expression Rating Scale, the Writing Strategies Scale, and the Writing Self Awareness Scale. The results of language expression quality ratings showed that the higher gradelevels and the better oral/written expression performance, this was true for both regular and LD students. No matter subjective or objective assessment, regular student subjects outperformed LD. As to oral expression, regular students performed better than LD kids in subjective assessment, but the differences between the two types of studentswere smaller in oral than in writing. Strategies related abilities did not show patterns relating to age. Regular students tended to perform better than LD kids in part of the strategies related ratings.
Relation: 計畫編號:NSC91-2413-H018-013; 研究期間:200208-200307
Appears in Collections:[特殊教育系所] 國科會計畫

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