At 24 GHz, communication range of 10 m is possible using on-chip antennas. Antenna efficiency of 25% is achieved by thinning the substrate to ~50 ¿m. At 5.8 GHz, using a pair of 6-mm long monopoles, communication range of more than 30 m can be achieved. On-chip antennas can be integrated with RF circuits in CMOS for general purpose communication. At frequencies above ~200 GHz, it becomes practical to integrate a patch antenna. A bond wire antenna has efficiency of ~15% at ~60 GHz.
2009 IEEE International Symposium on Radio-Frequency Integration Technology, Dec. 11-Jan. 9, 2009: 170-173