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Xiao-liu-qiu’s Social and Economic Changes (1622~1945)
|Issue Date: ||2012-10-25T08:49:38Z
As an island of carol reef, Xiao-liu-qiu has sterile soil and scarce river. Also, Xiao-liu-qiu is the common route for typhoons which endanger Taiwan every year. As a result, Xiao-Liu-Qiu’s primitive industry is affected in certain degree. On the other hand, there are abundant fishery resources in this island due to its seashore of carol reef and the two affluents from Kuroshio and South China Sea respectively. In addition, its nearness to Taiwan is another reason to attract fishermen from Taiwan.
This paper, based on time thread, tries to discuss the variety of society and economy in Xiao-liu-qiu. In fact, this island was original to aboriginals before Han people’s immigration. However, the aboriginals had been gradually either slaughtered or moving out under Dutch colonial government’s oppression since 1633. Under this situation, Dutch rented this land to Han people for exploitation.
The periods of 1720~1760 and 1770~1800 hit historical record of population in Xiao-liu-qiu, attributing to the implement of immigration and sea-crossing policies by Manchu government. Han people, who moved in Xiao-liu-qiu, mostly came from Jin-jiang county of Fukien province. Among them, the Hongs, who shared 76 percent of population in Da-liao-jiao-tou, mostly came from Wu-lin Township. The Tsais, who shared 32.2 percent of population in Bai-sha-wei, mostly came from Lu-cuo Township. The Lins, who shared 20.8 percent in Shan-ban-lu, are mostly from Qiao-tou Township of Nan-an. The Chens, who shared 56.6 percent in Tian-tai, mostly came from Lu-cuo also.
Meanwhile, the immigrants of Han brought their worships from their hometowns.Besides, since floating bodies were common sight, they were eventually worshiped in the temples.As to the reason for a forest of temples in Xiao-liu-qiu is “Da-qian-sui”,reated the gods worshiped in islanders’ houses and homeless ghosts through regular Wang-ye greeting fiesta. Nowadays, there is a hierarchy among various temples: public temple- jiao-tou temple- subgak-tau temple-private temple.
In regard of Xiao-liu-qiu’s production type, 80 percent of population was engaged in both fishery and agriculture in 1904. With this statistics, we can see very clearly that their production was considerably limited by traditional fishery techniques. The fishery grounds and their living circle, however, gradually expanded until Japanese period due to the invention of fishery automation. Thanks to Japanese government’s Southing Policy, Xiao-liu-qiu was subsidized to build lighthouses and ports of distress. Concerning fishery technique development, Japanese government mainly conducted survey on marine products and fishery grounds and also improved cold preservation and wireless techniques, which bridged the fishery technique gap between tradition and modern. In Japanese period, Xiao-liu-qiu’s social economy was greatly influenced by its fishery development based on the following aspects. Firstly, the number of fishery membership and fishery engagement dramatically jumped to multiple. Secondly, the islanders raised capital to construct vessel, entitled as Liu-qiu-wan, during Zao-ho period. Third, islanders independently hold “Wang-ye” greeting fiesta from Don-kong river basin area. The above examples practically illustrate that the islanders had developed cohesion among them. On the other hand, besides the upgrading of fishery techniques, Japanese government’s involvement, such as village service organization, public schools and various associations, has something to do with this island’s social change, which contribute to islanders’ forming self-identity and further hold “Wang-ye” greeting fiesta and mobilization for fiesta.
|Relation: ||碩士; 國立臺南大學臺灣文化研究所|
|Appears in Collections:||[歷史學研究所] 專書|
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