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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.ncue.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/15498

Title: 美國當代原住民文學中的信仰與社群之再現
The Representation of Religious Belief and Community in Contemporary Native American Literature
Authors: 張月珍
Contributors: 英語學系
Keywords: Ritual;Tribal vision;Religious syncretism;Belief conflict
儀式;部族靈視;佩雅特宗教;宗教融合;信仰衝突;神聖性
Date: 2000
Issue Date: 2013-02-05T02:27:25Z
Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
Abstract: Since their first contact with the indigenous people on North American continent, the Christian missionaries have set the goal to"civilize" what they subjectively judge to be savage indigenous people. Utilized as a colonization tool to subjugate the indigenous during colonization period, Christianity bore the stigma of being "an imperialist religion." Christianity, which is assumed to have exerted tremendous influences on the lives of Native Americans in the United States, is condemned to have prouced more detrimental than benefical effects on the developement of Native American cultures.
Christiaity, which is thought to ruthlessly impose its rational, monotheist beliefs on Native American community, compels the Native American to change, alter and give up their traditional beliefs and practices to a considerable extent. In face of forced assimilation, many Native American are compelled to make a choice for their religious orientation:whether to adhere to traditional belief or to convert to Christianity is a strategic means adopted to aid their struggle for cultural survival. Syncretic mixing of Chistianity elements is another strategy to preserve traditional belief, to minimize the potentially detrimental effect of religious colonization.
Because of the existence of diverging religious beliefs, Native American community is thereby sundered. Communal tensions and misunderstanding which arise from belief difference "undermine the work of community organizing" (Weaver ix), decreasing the cohesiveness of community.
This research project examines the way in which Native American mixedblood writers represent the religious dimensions of Native American communities:their belief conflicts, and belief accommodation. This project studyexpands the research scope from works of Paula Gunn Allen and Leslie Silko to the works of threemixedblood writers:D`Arcy McNickle`s The Surrounded(1936), N.Scott Momaday`s The Way to Rainy Mountain(1969) to Louise Erdrich`s Love Medicine:New and Expanded Version(1993), Tracks(1988), The Bingo Palace(1994).
In order to catch the main gist of Native American traditional beliefs, the project looks into Native American religious studies by Vive Deloria, Jr. and Jace Weaver. It further goes into anthropological descriptions about traditional beliefs of Native American communtities by Sam D. Gill. With fundamental cultural, religious and anthropological knowledge about Native American beliefs as background, the study examines the perspectives that these writers hold in their presentations of Native American communtity and religious beliefs.
自哥倫布發現新大陸,西方基督教傳教士進入美洲大陸,莫不以匡正美洲原住民「原始,落後,野蠻」信仰為神聖使命並以改造原住民傳統稱活方式的救世主姿態自居。在西方二元對立的思考架構下,原住民傳統信仰被視為邪靈的化身,當去之而後快。美洲原住民承受近五百年的被殖民窘境,面對文化屠殺式(cultural genocide)的政策,文化瀕臨滅絕。美國原住民傳統的宗教儀式如太陽之舞(Sun Dance),鬼舞(Ghost Dance),佩雅特宗教儀式(Peyote religion)都曾遭法令禁止舉行的命運。1960年代起的美國印地安運動(American Indian Movement),喚醒美國各部族原住民的部族意識。回歸部族9homing),重拾部族靈視(tribalvision)成為泛原住民部族的號召,還我土地,重返聖地(sacred land),回復傳統宗教儀式活動,尋得部族信仰自由(religious freedom)則成為普遍的訴求,在宗教,文化上取得部族自治權更成為原住民共同爭取的政治目標。
面對百年來白人宗教文化的壓境,同化政策的威迫,英語寄宿學校教育的推行,美洲原住民,縱使被圈於保留區中也難敵白人文化及代表另一股意識識型態的宗教信仰的侵入。當傳統部族信仰與挾帶龐大殖民勢力的西方宗教相遇時,美國原住民味求其生存或文化的自保,各有其相應之道。在信仰一途上,有選擇維護傳統信仰者,有選擇背離放棄部族信仰與身份,皈依西方基督教者,亦有設法在夾縫中,求長補短,融合兩種信仰於一者。以宣揚傳統佩雅特宗教(peyotism)的美國印地安教會(American Indian Church)自基督教中吸取某些要義,融入原住民傳統信仰,即是一例。
宗教融合(religious syncretism)似乎表現原住民在文化互動過程中,為解決衝突與矛盾,以不斷調整,調適,形塑出能彰顯原住民傳統講求兼容並蓄精神的一種信仰方式。然而,宗教融合並非意味兩股信仰的水乳交融,或在面對內部殖民的歷史過程中,原住民信仰與西方殖民宗教沒有歧異的存在。相反地,在面臨基督教霸權式的一神論,二元對立思想,及白人殖民政策的壓迫下,原住民為免於文化的根絕,將傳統信仰質素「偷渡」至基督教信仰中,也是保存傳統信仰的一種策略。
基督教的侵入對原住民傳統信仰及宇宙觀的所造成衝擊,在原住民的眼中是破壞性及毀滅性的。首先,原住民傳統非二元式的宇宙觀,重視萬物相乘的關係網絡觀,及其接受泛神(patheon)的信仰態度,基督教的一神論而遭貶斥打壓。原住民傳統信仰中所重視的將由祖靈引導(spirtual guidance)所追求靈視(vision quest)的靈性宗教經驗儀式亦因土地的喪失,祖靈的失落而日趨式微。原住民社群中更因族人選擇不同的立命安身信仰,產生信仰差異。歧見,誤解與衝突,因之滋生。信仰差異逐成為破壞於原住民社群合諧的導火線之一(Weaver ix)。
在再現原住民社群中繁複的宗教像養面向,各部族的原住民作家無不展現其關懷立場與部族視野。然而在再現過程中,混血原住民作家的跨文化,臨界門檻位置(liminal position)使其在再現的視野上表現出更為多面向,含混的態度。本計畫延伸從對寶拉 艾倫及席爾科之研究,擴大探查三位混血原住民作家作品中所種種與原住民社群信仰相關之議題。這包括:1930年代原住民作家麥可鎳克(D`Arcy McNickle)之<<被圍者>>(The Surrounded), 1960年代奧克拉荷馬州齊歐瓦族(Kiowa)莫瑪戴(N.Scott Momaday)的<<雨山之路>>(The Way to Rainy Mountain), <<日昇之屋>>以及1980年代厄翠琪(Louise Erdrich)的<<愛情靈藥>>(Love Medicine),<<蹤跡>>(Tracks),及賓果宮殿(The Bingo Palace)。論文中未加強對原住民化背景之瞭解亦自當代原住民哲學宗教學者德洛利亞(Vine Deloriam Jr.),及威佛(Jace Weaver)對原住民宗教運動之引介及研究著手,並輔以原住民人類學者吉爾(Gill)對原住民傳統信仰細部之解說,以掌握原住民作家作品中所引徵之與信仰,神話,心靈,儀式相關的符碼與觀念,期以確實瞭解美國原住民傳統宗教信仰之特色,並以之為基準探討原住民作家在呈現原住民社群面對西方宗教殖民時,是採取何種策略,以抗拒宗教同化及文化滅絕之威脅,以確保部族的自主性(sovereignty)與文化的傳承。
Relation: 國科會計畫, 計畫編號: NSC89-2411-H182-001; 研究期間: 8808-8907
Appears in Collections:[英語學系] 國科會計畫

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