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題名: 美國當代原住民文學中的信仰與社群之再現(II)
The Representation of Religious Belief and Community in Contemporary Native American Literature (II)
作者: 張月珍
貢獻者: 英語學系
關鍵詞: 宗教;聯邦政府;契約;土地政策;法律權;道德權;正義
Justice;Legal rights;Moral rights;Federal government;Land policy;Treaty
日期: 2000
上傳時間: 2013-02-05T02:27:47Z
出版者: 行政院國家科學委員會
摘要: 五百多年來,美國原住民或因社會政治因素,或因外在環境影響,被迫放棄自己的土地,過著流離漂動的生活。長期被排拒於白人主流律法制定之外,但又承受歷代與白人統治者交涉苦痛抗爭經驗的美國原住民而言,維護捍衛其現有的生存空間與權利, 並設法討回被白人移居者(settlers)侵占,挪用為己有的土地,尋回其有尊嚴且自主的生存權利,一直是奮鬥的目標,也是其抗拒主流司法與社會的緣由之一。在美國原住民眼中,白人移居者口中所謂的公理與正義,尤其是對土地所有權之解釋及所制定之政策,往往是如科羅拉州大學Ward Churchill 教授所追溯與形容的,是曲解的正義(perversionof justice)。這曲解的正義,依據WardChurchill 之觀照,可遠溯於1820 年代衍生與逐步推展的「馬歇爾信條」(Marshall Doctrine)。1831 年,居住於喬治亞州的契若基(Cherokee) 部族,因不服聯邦政府制定出所謂印第安人領域 (Indian Territory) 的觀念,強迫其將土地交出,搬遷至密西西比河以西,遂提出申訴抗議。當時的最高法院的大法官John Marshall,為滿足美國向西部擴張的野心,排除印第安人定居於其間,擁有領地權利所形成之障礙,重新詮釋且曲解了歐洲各國在哥倫布發現美洲新大陸時期,為因應發現領土而引發的所有權及合法性問題,所制定的「發現信條」(Discovery Doctrine)。「馬歇爾信條」和「發現信條」最大的差別在於後者至少能從國際法的基礎,視原住民為擁有自治主權(self-sovereignty)的實體,能尊重原住民居住於領地的權利,同時也約束移居者不得在未獲得原住民的認可下,以任何武力威迫,侵占原住民的領土,而若未有人居住的土地被發現,其土地所有權,依據歐洲羅馬教皇的諭令,是屬於能代表歐洲皇室的基督教發現者;然而,在「馬歇爾信條」中,美國聯邦政府所代表的地位,被解釋為遠高於原住
民,而原住民被認定為是已失去其自治權,成為依附仰賴(dependent)於美國政府生存的內部族群(domesticnation),因此,政府有「權利」(rights)徵收土地,原住民若因之抗拒反抗,則政府有權對原住民的侵犯的行為,發動所謂的「正義」之戰(Churchill,
403-7)。在此邏輯論證的基礎下,美國聯邦政府可以拒絕履行過去與印第安人所簽署的種種協約。然而,協約之訂定,原是歐洲入侵者視原住民為具自治權之相對實體,在為保持與達成彼此交易所制定出的某種契約,無論其所使用的文字為何,其中所隱含的是相互的信任,承諾等建立在道德層次上的許諾與認知層次上經由彼此認定所達成的協議。美國革命成功後,原住民和歐洲移民入侵者的政府所維繫的以兩個自治國家簽署協約的基礎被摧毀,「馬歇爾信條」更進一步給予美國聯邦政府依據來矮化原住民的政治地位。長期以來,無論為迫使原住民交出蘊藏資源豐富的土地,或命其遷入政府歸劃的保留區,協約的簽署或多或少保障了原住民相當的權利(諸如部族自治,漁獵,水資源及博弈權等),但1871 年起,聯邦政府中止和原住民簽署任何協約,反而將原住民以立法的方式,納入國家管轄,在各方資源追逐與利益衝突的爭執中,不僅原住民原有的生存空間與權益受到
壓縮,其宗教文化更面臨空前的挑戰。歷史上,美國原住民承受白人聯邦政府加諸於其部族種種不合乎正義的行為及政策,這除可如Churchill所指,追因於John Marshall 之歪曲解釋外,另有原住民學者抽絲剝繭,將之遠溯於「發現信條」制定時,所挾帶的宗教歧視。Steve Newcomb 認為十五世紀羅馬教皇發佈之諭令,付予葡萄牙及西班牙遠征美非大陸,探尋新大陸,宣揚基督教信仰,馴服壓迫異教徒之權利,乃種下今日美州原住民族群及文化近乎滅絕的主因。歐洲殖民者所享有的征服權(the right of conquest),係以另一族裔的幾近滅絕為代價。自1830 年以降,美國聯邦政府的政治,道德與經濟論述,環繞在新/舊世界,文明國家/落後部族,優/劣道德的二元價值判斷。從發起屠殺牛隻動物,以消除被認為係阻礙新國家發展的原住民族群的「殲滅政策」(policy ofextermination),到同化政策,及原住民的再安置計畫,國家政策對原住民族群生存權利的壓迫及剝奪昭然若揭。以此歷史為背景,揭露1830 年代以來的美國聯邦政府為鞏固國家論述及經濟意識形態,違背契約,壓迫原住民宗教文化生存空間及權利之美國原住民文學作品不在少數。反映契約論述的作品,如學者Allen Chadwick之研究所指,出現在諸如Erdrich 及Welch 等歷史小說中。而對政府法律的省思,原住民在白人社會權益(rights)之探討則更大量反映在Erdrcih, Welch, Silko, McNickle,Mourning Dove 的小說中。本研究中即企圖從倫理, 正義等觀念切入, 檢視諸如Erdrich 的<<蹤跡>>,McNickle 的<<被圍者>>等歷史小說,及Mourning Dove 的自傳性小說<<混血兒>>等,如何再現1830 年代至1930 年代中涉及的政府政策與文化,宗教的關係,探討原住民作家在文本中,如何處理原住民在歷史情境面臨龐大國家體制壓迫時,尋求法律正義或道德規範。
Within 500 years, for whatever physical or socio-political reasons, Native Americans are compelled to give up their lands, involuntarily migrating from one place to another. Having been marginalized (or expelled) from the mainstream legal institutions, which write and enact the legal rights of the American citizens, Native Americans have been deprived of not only legal rights but land rights. For centuries, Native Americans have made it the ultimate goal of their tribes: to protest against the injustice inflicted on them and to fight back the legal rights to lands which they have possessed since "the time immemorial." This battle for rights and justice with the federal governments of the United States started as early as the establishment of the New Nation after the American Revolution. In the nineteenth century, Native Americans were legally denied the sovereign rights and status, because their occupancy of the land was thought to be a block to the Western expansion of the United States. The emergence of "The Marshall Doctrine" gives the federal government a legitimate status to wage a "just" war against the indigenous people if the latter refuse to give up their property or if they stand up to defend the land to be expropriated by the government. The
Marshall Doctrine, which gives an "absurd" interpretation of the adopted Discovery Doctrine to the advantage of the white land owners, is criticized by Native American scholars like Ward Churchill as an example of the "perversions of justice." And the Discovery Doctrine, which was formulated by the Pope Nicholas in 1492 to grant the rights of land only to the "Christian" discovers, was also
condemned by scholars like Steven Newcomb to be the origin of injustice that carried "the legacy of fifteenth century religious prejudice." The
encroachment of Christianity certainly shatters the traditional beliefs and social structures of the Native Americans. Since the 1830s, the United States have enacted a series of land policies under the name of constructing a modernized New Nation. The drawing of Indian Territory, the quest for Manifest Destiny, the idea of Western Expansionism, the passage and the enactment of the Removal Act, the Allotment Act, and the relocation policy and so on all put the destiny of Native Americans into trial. After American Revolution, Native Americans faced not only the so-called "perversion of justice" but also the breach of treaty, which they used to sign as an "independent" sovereignty (or nation) with the
government on the basis of mutual trust and friendship. The discourse of treaty, as Allen Chadwick studies, has been displayed in the historical novels of Louise Erdrich and James Welch. The search for justice also manifested in 4 series of Native American novels since the 1830s. This study thus intends to analyze the historical novels by Louise Erdrich (Tracks) and Scott McNickle (The Surrounded) and the autobiographical novel by Mourning Dove (Cogewea ) to explore the issues concerning religion, land, policy, justice and the law. The objective is to examine the way in which Native American writers deal with the legal and moral problems created by the ideological and
legal oppressions of the institutions.
關聯: 國科會計畫, 計畫編號: NSC89-2411-H182-003; 研究期間: 8908-9007
顯示於類別:[英語學系] 國科會計畫

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