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Title: 氣候變遷與不同尺度植被物候研究之回顧
Climate Change and Vegetation Phenology in Different Scales A Review
Authors: 張仲德;王素芬;林登秋
Contributors: 地理學系
Keywords: 物候;氣候變遷;地面觀察;遙測;常態化差異植生指標
Phenology;Climate change;Ground observation;Remote sensing;NDVI
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2013-04-22T08:15:37Z
Publisher: 臺灣大學地理環境資源學系
Abstract: 全球氣候變遷對生態系最主要的影響之一為改變植物生長階段的時序(即植物物候)變化,此物候變動可能進而影響生物的地理分布。本文回顧近數十年由地面觀察及遙測分析物候的研究結果,並探討結合二種研究方法於物候分析的潛力與挑戰。長期地面觀察提供了小尺度內植物對氣候變化的反應,植物物候近半世紀以來受到全球暖化溫度上升的影響,已經產生明顯的變動。許多區域生長季開始時間提早、結束時間延後及生長季延長,顯示氣候變遷已經明顯地影響陸域生態系的生長活動,對於生態系生產力的轉變及對全球碳循環具有相當重大的意義。影響物候變化的因素在寒帶及溫帶地區主要受溫度所主導,乾燥及半乾燥地區的植被則因雨量的變動而改變空間分布,熱帶地區相關研究較少,仍需持續監測才能釐清氣候變遷對熱帶植被物候的影響。遙測資訊對於許多偏僻不容易到達的地區提供更多分析的可能性,近三十年來利用遙測技術分析地表物候的結果,顯示中高緯度生長季開始時間的提早與氣候暖化的趨勢一致,其中生長季開始前溫度的上升是影響地表物候相當重要的因素。臺灣地區少有地面觀察分析物候與氣候之間的關係,最近的遙測分析顯示,地表物候的主導因素為溫度,雨量則對有明顯乾季的平原地區產生顯著的效應。雖然地面觀察與遙測分析之結果未盡相符,但隨著影像解析度及分析技術的快速進步,兩者的結合對比分析在探討氣候變遷對由物種到生態系物候變動的影響,仍具有很大的潛力,值得地理學者投入。
Changes in temporal pattern of plant growth (i.e. plant phenology) are one of the main effects of global climate change on ecosystems that may alter the geographical distribution of organisms. We reviewed the studies of vegetation phenology derived from field observations, and using remote sensing techniques and evaluate the potentials and challenges of the integration of these two approaches. Long-term field records revealed responses of plants to climate change. Plant phenology has changed substantially over the last half century due to elevated temperature associated with global warming. Growing season started earlier, ended later and lasted longer than before in various regions. Results suggested that climate change had significantly affected the growth of terrestrial ecosystems which in turn had major influences on ecosystem productivity and carbon cycling. Temperature was the dominant factor affecting plant phenology in boreal and temperate regions and variability in precipitation was the key factor affecting spatial distribution of vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions. Few studies examined vegetation phenology in the tropics such that more studies are urged in order to clarify the effects of climate change on phenology. Remotely sensed data enhance our ability to analyze ecosystem phenology of remote and inaccessible regions. Analysis of land surface phenology over the last three decades using remote sensing techniques indicated that the pattern of earlier start of growing season in the mid- and high-latitudes was consistent with the pattern of global warming. Elevated temperate prior to the beginning of growing season might contribute to the earlier beginning of growing season. Few field observations focused on the relationship between plant phenology and climate conditions in Taiwan. Recent studies using remotely sensed data revealed that temperature was the key factor determining land surface phenology but precipitation also played an important role in low elevation plains with a distinctive dry season. Field observations of plant phenology do not always agree with results from analysis of remotely sensed data. However, with the rapid advances in the resolutions of satellite images and analytical techniques, the integration of the two approaches may have tremendous potential in studies of the effects of global climate change and dynamics of ecosystem phenology. Geographers are strongly encouraged to get involved and contribute to this promising research topic.
Relation: 地理學報, 63: 1-33
Appears in Collections:[地理學系] 期刊論文

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