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The Transformation of Images from National to Narrative Affairs of Sun Hao: An Observation from Records of the Three Kingdoms to Biographies of Eminent Monks
Sun Hao;Kang Seng-hui;Chen Shou’s Records of the Three Kingdoms;Pei Song-zhi’s Commentary on the Records of Three Kingdoms;Hui Jiao’s Biographies of Eminent Monks;Antagonistic situation;Cause and effect;Propagation of Buddhism
|Issue Date: ||2013-05-28T09:36:47Z
The historical image of Sun Hao, the last monarch of Sun-Wu during the Three Kingdoms Period, has been portrayed as an evil tyrant. However, this evil image actually originated from Records of the Three Kingdoms, the masterpiece written by Chen Shou who was a surviving official of Shu-Han Empire during Western Jin Dynasty. Therefore, harsh criticism in the book towards its arch rival Sun Wu is imaginable. Chen Shou also uses polished words to cover up the faults of Liu Shan, the last emperor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era. As such, nostalgic feelings towards Chen’s home country reveal his stance in the writing. This serving-one’s-own-master phenomenon is also hidden in the Commentary on the Records of Three Kingdoms by Pei Song-zhi who collected related literatures since the Three Kingdoms period. If Sun Hao’s works are in the category of Sun Wu friendly historical literatures of the south, such as Yu Pu’s Jiang-biao Zhuan [Biography of Jian-biao], Wei Zhao’s Wu Shu [Book of Wu], Zhang Bo’s Wu Lu [Records of Wu], and Hu Chong’s Wu Li [History of Wu], we can easily observe that the perspectives from the southern literatures are completely opposite to Chen’s views due to the fact that the literatures of the south display their feelings for home country and they try to beautify the image of Sun Hao. Therefore, the typical features of beautifying one’s own country and demonizing the enemy countries are plainly
visible in the historical literatures of Southern and Northern Dynasties. However, compared to the official histories which hold traditional moral values and politically antagonistic ideology, the Buddhist historical points of view tend to focus on the propagation of Buddhist doctrines. Consequently, being scrutinized in such a position, Sun Hao’s image was transformed. In strange and supernatural novels such as Xuan Yan Ji and Jing Yi Ji, Sun Hao contracted bizarre disease on account of his blasphemy against Buddha. Thus it reached the turning point in his conversion to Buddhism, it also indicated that Sun Hao was transformed from an unruly person suggested in the official histories into a reformed Buddhist. In addition, in the books honoring the great moralities of many eminent monks, Sun Hao mediated and led to Kang Seng-hui’s propagation and protection of Buddhism. Sun also played a key role in consolidating the position of Kang in the history of Buddhist. As such, this study aims to uncover layer by layer the image transformation of Sun Hao from different historical perspectives.
|Relation: ||彰化師範大學文學院學報, 6: 185-204|
|Appears in Collections:||[文學院學報] 第六期|
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