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Title: 「國事孫晧」與「故事孫晧」──從《三國志》到《高僧傳》間的觀察
The Transformation of Images from National to Narrative Affairs of Sun Hao: An Observation from Records of the Three Kingdoms to Biographies of Eminent Monks
Authors: 許聖和
Keywords: 孫晧;康僧會;陳壽《三國志》;裴松之《三國志注》;慧皎《高僧傳》敵我對立;因果感應;弘法
Sun Hao;Kang Seng-hui;Chen Shou’s Records of the Three Kingdoms;Pei Song-zhi’s Commentary on the Records of Three Kingdoms;Hui Jiao’s Biographies of Eminent Monks;Antagonistic situation;Cause and effect;Propagation of Buddhism
Date: 2012-09
Issue Date: 2013-05-28T09:36:47Z
Publisher: 彰化師範大學文學院
Abstract: 三國時期孫吳政權的末代君主孫晧的歷史形象,始終被定型為無惡不作的亡國暴君,然此形象之構塑來源,實本諸西晉時代蜀漢遺臣的史家陳壽所作之《三國志》,故其勢必嚴詞批判曾為敵對之國孫吳的君主,此一隱曲也可由其對故國末主蜀漢劉禪的諱過飾辭,比較出陳壽著史立場中所蘊藏強烈的故國之思。而這種各為其主的現象也苞藏於裴松之《三國志注》中所蒐集三國以來南北各地的史料文獻中,若將孫晧置於立場偏向孫吳的南方史籍:虞溥《江表傳》、韋昭《吳書》、張勃《吳錄》、胡沖《吳歷》等書中觀察,則各書基於故國之思與專美本國之立場而美化孫晧,便與陳壽的述史視角發生對立,由此更能看出魏晉南北朝史籍文獻專美本國而醜化敵國的重要特色。然而與正史承受傳統道德價值與政治對立之意識型態相比,屬於釋教史觀的記載往往側重於宣法化教的目的,因此在這種立場下,孫晧的形象也隨著產生質變,於感應類志怪小說《宣驗記》、《旌異記》中,孫晧因褻瀆佛像而招致怪病之報應,成為促其歸向佛法的契機,也顯示出孫晧已由正史文獻系統頑劣不悛的形象轉變成改過遷善的佛教信徒。另在以揭諦高僧之德流芳後世為主題的僧傳系統中,孫晧則為引導出康僧會弘揚佛法與護教決心的重要媒介,以提升康僧會在佛教史地位的重要角色。故本文即欲層層剝析於彼此之間不同史觀架構下,孫晧形象所產生的流變。
The historical image of Sun Hao, the last monarch of Sun-Wu during the Three Kingdoms Period, has been portrayed as an evil tyrant. However, this evil image actually originated from Records of the Three Kingdoms, the masterpiece written by Chen Shou who was a surviving official of Shu-Han Empire during Western Jin Dynasty. Therefore, harsh criticism in the book towards its arch rival Sun Wu is imaginable. Chen Shou also uses polished words to cover up the faults of Liu Shan, the last emperor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era. As such, nostalgic feelings towards Chen’s home country reveal his stance in the writing. This serving-one’s-own-master phenomenon is also hidden in the Commentary on the Records of Three Kingdoms by Pei Song-zhi who collected related literatures since the Three Kingdoms period. If Sun Hao’s works are in the category of Sun Wu friendly historical literatures of the south, such as Yu Pu’s Jiang-biao Zhuan [Biography of Jian-biao], Wei Zhao’s Wu Shu [Book of Wu], Zhang Bo’s Wu Lu [Records of Wu], and Hu Chong’s Wu Li [History of Wu], we can easily observe that the perspectives from the southern literatures are completely opposite to Chen’s views due to the fact that the literatures of the south display their feelings for home country and they try to beautify the image of Sun Hao. Therefore, the typical features of beautifying one’s own country and demonizing the enemy countries are plainly
visible in the historical literatures of Southern and Northern Dynasties. However, compared to the official histories which hold traditional moral values and politically antagonistic ideology, the Buddhist historical points of view tend to focus on the propagation of Buddhist doctrines. Consequently, being scrutinized in such a position, Sun Hao’s image was transformed. In strange and supernatural novels such as Xuan Yan Ji and Jing Yi Ji, Sun Hao contracted bizarre disease on account of his blasphemy against Buddha. Thus it reached the turning point in his conversion to Buddhism, it also indicated that Sun Hao was transformed from an unruly person suggested in the official histories into a reformed Buddhist. In addition, in the books honoring the great moralities of many eminent monks, Sun Hao mediated and led to Kang Seng-hui’s propagation and protection of Buddhism. Sun also played a key role in consolidating the position of Kang in the history of Buddhist. As such, this study aims to uncover layer by layer the image transformation of Sun Hao from different historical perspectives.
Relation: 彰化師範大學文學院學報, 6: 185-204
Appears in Collections:[文學院學報] 第六期

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