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|Title: ||Messages behind the Unheard Sounds: Crossing the Word Boundaries through Songs|
|Authors: ||Ting, Wen-Ying;Kuo, Feng-Lan|
|Keywords: ||Reduced forms;Connected speech instruction;Word recognition in listening;Song lyrics dictation|
|Issue Date: ||2013-07-15T04:11:33Z
|Abstract: ||The knowledge and application of reduced forms in word recognition is a decisive factor for English learners to attain a higher language proficiency. Listening comprehension for non-native English speakers involves aspects of diction, syntax, grammar and content. Language in the spoken form is more challenging in that learners have to discern sounds that tend to cross the word boundaries for fluency. Therefore, the|
ability to comprehend and identify correctly what is said is the key to understanding spoken English. To fully comprehend a naturally pronounced sentence well, ESL/EFL learners need a basic knowledge of reduced forms including C-C linking (elision), C-V linking, /h/-deletion, contraction, palatalization, flapping, and the like. An appropriate approach for students to improve listening comprehension is through songs (Crawford, 2006). The present study is a language experiment practiced on two homogeneous groups of sophomore English majors who aim at passing high-intermediate GEPT in the junior year. Both groups were given the intermediate GEPT listening test to establish their initial listening proficiency. The experimental group then underwent a six-session (240 minutes) training course, in which the afore-mentioned six reduced forms were taught through twelve songs in Hit Parade Listening (Kumai & Timson, 2003, 2010). The techniques and knowledge of reduced forms were explicitly taught through lectures and dictation exercises of song lyrics. Two forms of a dictation test of 17 digitally recorded sentences of similar reliability coefficient, containing the six targeted connected speech patterns, were developed as the pretest and the posttest, respectively. The results showed the subjects of the experimental group made overall significant improvement in recognizing spoken words than the control group after receiving the explicit connected speech instruction using the Hit Parade Listening Class CD and Song CD. Regarding the error types, in the pre-instructional phase, the subjects were found to have major difficulties in dictating sentences containing contraction and C-V linking; nevertheless, they made significant progress with these two patterns in the post-instructional phase. In contrast, the subjects didn’t make progress regarding /h/-deletion and flapping. It’s likely that the subjects have previously not been exposed enough to these two connected speech patterns.
英語學習者的縮減音知識，與運用此知識於口語詞彙辨識之能力，是影響英語能力高低的因素之一。非母語學習者的聽力理解面向包括字彙、句型、文法與內容。口說語言的理解在語言技巧中較具挑戰性，因為學習者必須立即辨識出說話者表達流暢時所省略的音。因此，正確理解與辨識口語詞彙便成了理解口說英語的利器。為完全掌握自然語流的口說英語，ESL/EFL 學習者須具備縮減音基本知識，如子音與子音的連音(C-C linking/elision)、子音與母音的連音(C-V linking)、h 音的省略(/h/-deletion)、顎化音(palatalization)、縮短音(contraction)及拍擊音(flapping)等。透過歌曲學習縮減音被視為合宜的學習方法(Crawford, 2006)。本研究屬於語言實驗，應用於兩班同質之大二英語系學生，通過中高級英檢是這些學生大三的學習目標之一。這兩組學生都做了中級英檢聽力測驗以確定其同質性。實驗組進而接受六堂(240分鐘)的縮減音訓練課程，課程內容為含上述六項縮減音之Hit Parade Listening (Kumai & Timson, 2003, 2010)12 課教材。縮減音之技巧與知識以明確教學的方式傳授，並藉歌詞聽寫練習強化學習成效。本研究所自行開發之前後測，為兩種不同版本但信度相當的聽寫測驗，各含以前述六種縮減音類型為測驗目標之17 句數位錄音的句子。研究結果顯示接受以Hit Parade Listening Class CD 及 Song CD 做為縮減音教材明確教學後之實驗組學生，在辨識口語字彙方面較控制組學生獲得整體顯著改善。至於錯誤類型，在教學前學生之主要縮減音困難為縮短音(contraction)及子音與母音的連音(C-V linking)。施以教學後，這兩類型均有顯著進步。然而，h 音的省略(/h/-deletion)及拍擊音(flapping)卻未見進步；究其原因，可能是學生對該二類型之接觸量不足所致。
|Relation: ||彰化師大文學院學報, 5: 75-92|
|Appears in Collections:||[英語學系] 期刊論文|
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