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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.ncue.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/17713

Title: 近代中國民族主義救亡運動的四重奏:保國、保種、保教與國粹保存運動
The Symphony of Nationalist Movements for Saving China during the Modern Era: China's Recovery of Sovereignty, National Independence, and the Restoration of Confucian and Chinese Culture, 1842~1912
Authors: 黃綉媛
Contributors: 台灣文學研究所
Keywords: 民族主義;主權國家;保國權;保華種;保孔教;民族認同;國粹保存
Nationalism;Sovereignty;Confucianism;National identity;Cultural restoration
Date: 2002-10
Issue Date: 2013-12-30T06:47:15Z
Publisher: 國立彰化師範大學
Abstract: 本文論述所關懷的主題是,近代中國知識分子如何在帝國主義強權國家侵略下,爲了保衛國家主權、民族的生存,爲堅守儒家信仰,以及復興中華文化所作的各種努力。他們又如何建構國族與文化的認同意識,以凝聚民族的力量,傳承中國的文化。研究結果顯示,國家主權觀念,在晚清社會已普遍爲知識分子和商人階層所接受,並付諸行動於收回國家主權的反帝國主義運動。改革派官員與學者致力於以富國強兵爲導向的現代化運動,中國現代化的教育目的是讓學子掌握西方的科技知能,並使他們堅守儒家道德信仰,以維持對清朝的效忠和對傳統文化的認同。他們並強調融合中國所有民族爲一大民族國家才足以對付外敵。革命黨人則認爲滿清屈服於帝國主義勢力,故要救中國必先進行排滿革命,建立共和民族國家,而革命的終極目標是恢復中國主權的自主與獨立。革命黨的國粹學派,則致力於語言、歷史等國學的研究,他們建構出漢民族的祖先和漢語根源的譜系,以之做爲國族認同和文化認同的基礎。但是國粹派貶經抑孔,並不以儒家倫理做爲文化認同的基礎,從而挑戰了儒學的權威地位。整體而言,評估民族主義的作用必須注意到,在中國的情形是民族主義有利於凝聚國家意識,但是族裔民族主義卻也是造成中國分裂不穩的因素。而知識分子在民族認同建構上,固有其趨同之處,但亦有殊異未能達共識之處。
This paper focuses on examining the efforts made by modern Chinese nationalists to recover China's sovereignty, to struggle for national survival, and to restore Chinese culture. The paper also discusses the issues of national and cultural identity, which has been a controversial debate among intellectuals. In essence, the nationalistic movements for saving China was presented in three approaches: 1. The political nationalist movement focused on anti-imperialism. The nationalists included officials, merchants, and intellectuals aimed at recovering the independence of China's sovereign. 2. In order to make China wealthy and powerful, for competing with the Western Powers, the reformers were devoted to modernizing the educational system by studying western technology, while preserving the traditions of Confucianism at the same time. They emphasized that Confucian ethics are the basis of national identity. They also stressed that all Chinese peoples must be consolidated into one group as the means for expelling imperialistic powers. 3. The revolutionary nationalists engaged in anti-Manchu revolution in order to build a Republic nation-state. The ultimate end of revolution was to recover the freedom and independence of China. The revolutionary Sinologists were devoted to preserving both national heritage and national identity. They emphasized that the common language and ancestor are the basis of national identity. Nonetheless, they also challenged the authority of Confucianism. Finally, the effect of nationalism must be carefully valued. In the case of China, the ideology of nationalism can become the dynamics of unifying national consciousness. In spite of this, ethnicity nationalism also became the main destabilized factor in modern China.
Relation: 白沙人文社會學報, 1: 317-378
Appears in Collections:[台灣文學研究所] 期刊論文

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