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Title: 深層生態學的綠色言說:勒瑰恩奇幻小說中的虛擬奇觀和環境想像
Green Discourses of Deep Ecology: Fictional Spectacles and Environmental Imagination in Ursula Le Guin’s Three Fantastical Stories
Authors: 蔡淑芬
Contributors: 彰化師範大學文學院
Keywords: 生態批評;環境;奇幻文學;修辭;景觀
Date: 2013-03
Issue Date: 2015-06-15T09:26:11Z
Publisher: 彰化師範大學文學院
Abstract: 美國生態批評運動的領軍人物勞倫斯‧布伊爾(Laurence Buell)提出一個觀點:若我們同意存在先於社會實踐,那麼「環境無意識」就比「政治無意識」更為深入地嵌入一個文本。為使環境無意識浮顯出來,生態批評可對文本與環境關係,透過多樣化的修辭與重造世界的巧思來揭示藝術是如何展現環境性,重新把現實事物(包括內在、外在、自然、非自然的身體)拉入自身的結構肌理,思索存在的本質、危機和可塑性(51)。
本論文將以上述觀點,以娥蘇拉‧勒瑰恩(Ursula K. Le Guin)的作品為例,探討她多樣的寫作策略如何透過奇觀(spectacle)呈現環境乃形塑集體文化和個人成長的關鍵因素。勒瑰恩小說裡有許多精彩的虛擬奇觀,本論文將舉例分析如下:
1. The Left Hand of Darkness(1969)──本小說最為人稱道的雌雄同體的性別想像,是透過一場800 哩的冰原長征歷險烘托出來的。但批評家很少分析文中描繪冰原景觀的細膩筆法。其中暗含的修辭策略刻意呼應陰陽並存、黑白並列的道家思想,和人類在自然環境中的脆弱與偉大。
2. “Vaster than Empire and More Slow”(1971)──本故事敘述一太空船隊登陸一陌生的星球“World 4470"。這個星球沒有動物,只有植物。沒有聲音,只有風的吹拂和一片無邊無際的寂靜。人類覺得自己入侵了這樣的寂靜後,為此產生莫名的恐懼,發生了被襲擊的恐怖事件。離奇的劇情把原本「外在的、無聲的」自然,內化成了人類「心中恐怖的、有聲的、無所不在」的存在。
3. The Dispossessed(1974)──這部小說舖陳在烏托邦長大的主角,因為不滿集體制約的壓迫,自我放逐到「資本私有」的母星烏拉斯,然後在兩種制度與價值裡迷惑、試煉、「死亡」與「再生」的故事。烏拉斯的山川殿堂、人類文明都是人間景象的變形濃縮。作者採取陌生化的誇張描寫,對環境性進行編碼重組。在此小說語言不僅是「再現世界」,再現更成了一種工具,主角對環境的認知就是他們的內心狀態具體呈現。憑藉它我們也改變對消費文明的立場。
Laurence Buell, a leading eco-critic in America, proposes a way of seeing the world—if we agree that “where of existence precedes the what of social practice, a text’s environmental unconscious is more deeply embedded even than its ‘political unconsciousness’” (44). To make “conscious” the environmental unconscious, therefore, an eco-critic might approach the reciprocity between text and environment, with diverse
rhetoric skills and imaginative world-making, to illustrate how art claims environmentality through acknowledging the present reality (including inner, outer, natural or non-natural body) as essential components to rethink the nature, danger and
flexibility of one’s being.
With the above perspective, this essay will study the impressive environmental spectacles in three fantastic stories by Ursula K. Le Guin to discuss how Le Guin’s versatile writing strategies make us aware of the hidden force of environment as a vital power to shape our collective and individual self. The discussion will include the following sections:
1. The Left Hand of Darkness (1969) is a science fiction most praised for the creation of “androgynous” people on an exotic planet called “Winter.” The story reaches its climax when the two heroes escape together to the deadly Gobrien Ice. However, it I seldom discussed about how the natural wonder of Ice-fire coexistence spectacle on the Ice plateau is deliberately created to illustrate the central theme of this novel—the Chinese Taoist philosophy of “Yin-Yang” forces as opposite but complimentary forces.
2. “Vaster than Empire and More Slow”(1971) is a short story about an exploration team landing on a strange planet, “World 4470.” This planet has no animals, only planets. Thus no voices could be heard here besides infinite silence and wind blowing. Humans have a strong feeling of intruding this serene planet. And for this, a fear grows among them and the fear grows bigger after a sudden attack happens. The unusual imagination concretizes the mysterious green as an active, powerful and omnipresent force.
3. The Dispossessed (1974) is a future story in which the hero exiles himself from his home Anarres, an “anarchistic communism” utopia, to escape to the neighbor planet Urras, on which the dominant living value and economic-political system is “capitalistic consumerism.” With the literary devices of exaggeration, re-arrangement and sarcasm, the geography and civilization on Urras are condensed epitomes of our postmodern world. The author seeks to “de-familiarize” the “capitalistic consumption” epistemology we take for granted with the hero’s shocking experience of “nausea” when he is exposed to the overwhelming spectacle of “shopping mall” on Urras.
The fictional spectacles in these stories are impressive dramatized pictures—including the the abolishment of capitalistic politics and the revolutionary “anarchist” “communist” utopia— which are also persuasive green discourses of “deep ecology.” Ursula K. Le Guin’s diverse environmental rhetoric, viewed all together, points to one common destination: the journey of the physical self will never complete until it leads to the revelation of the ecological “Self.”
Relation: 彰化師範大學文學院學報, 7: 121-138
Appears in Collections:[文學院學報] 第七期

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