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Title: Taiwanese Mountain Area as Place/Landscape Presented in Seediq Bale
Authors: 李晶菁
Contributors: 彰化師範大學文學院
Keywords: Place;Landscape;Environmental racism
Date: 2013-03
Issue Date: 2015-06-15T09:26:56Z
Publisher: 彰化師範大學文學院
Abstract: In “Some Principles of Ecocriticism,” William Howarth writes that nature and culture “constantly mingle, like water and soil in a flowing stream” (69). Lawrence Buell, while considering the future of environmental criticism, expresses a clear belief that “the environment” refers to both “natural” and “human-built” dimensions of the world. The two critics suggest, in effect, that the built environment, as well as the natural aspects of the land, be discussed.
The environment is thus permeated with diverse power relations among people, and with interactions between man and his surroundings. This expanded notion considers the environment as “landscape” – a compound term in which “land” refers to the surface of the earth while “scape” means “to shape” from the outside. The term, then, implicitly refers to man’s collective effects on the environment; the land is made and modified to serve as the infrastructure for human existence. Another idea related to land ethics is “place,” which, according to Tim Creswell, allows not only for being understood through the lens of social and cultural conflicts, but also for discussions of value, belonging and
attachment (20).
This paper is intended to discuss the ideas of place and landscape in Seediq Bale, and to investigate diverse relations between men and the environment. Seediq Bale, a film released in 2011, is about the conflicts between the aboriginal people in Taiwan and Japanese colonizers. The film is set in the mountain areas in Taiwan. The mountain area becomes a land shaped, abused and changed for Japanese imperial benefits. It is, however, a “place” for the aboriginals, a land not constructed by a seamless, coherent identity, but one containing a variety of conflicts and attachments. The mountain area in the film becomes a social construct expressing a sense of (un)rootedness, the oppression of people, and the exploitation of nature. Japanese colonial hegemony therefore causes environmental racism, which is a form of racial oppression connected to and supported by natural exploitation.
因此在討論環境議題時,會發現「環境」其實內涵了人與人之間的權力關係,以及人與周遭的各種互動。這樣的觀念擴展下去,即衍伸出兩個對環境的觀點。一是「地景」(landscape),此為複合字:land 指地表萬象,scape 指的是外來的「形塑」。「地景」一詞泛指: 土地為人類存在的物質基本結構之際,人類集體對環境的影響。另一個對土地倫理的觀點是「地方」(place)。根據克瑞斯威爾的定義,「地方」這個概念不只可以觀看其內部社會文化的衝突,也可以討論位於其中的價值、
基於上述觀念,筆者意圖討論電影「賽德克巴萊」中「地方」、「地景」的呈現,以及探討其中人與環境不同的關係網絡。此電影於2011 年上映,其中探討原著民和日本殖民者之間的衝突。電影以及史實事件發生在中台灣的山區:這山區在日本帝國利益環視之下,已成為一個被形塑、被壓榨、且因此面貌改變的「地景」。然而,對原住民而言,這山區是一個「地方」: 內部並非共享平和且單一的身分,而是一個有內在衝突以及情感依附之地。電影中的山區因此成為一個社會建構,內含了紮根與失根的矛盾、對人的壓迫、以及對環境的迫害。日本殖民霸權造就了「環境種族主義」;而所謂的「環境種族主義」,乃指種族壓迫及環境破壞之間相輔相成的關係。
Relation: 彰化師範大學文學院學報, 7: 205-220
Appears in Collections:[文學院學報] 第七期

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