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题名: 情境式「認知學徒制」教學策略對高職學生物理運動概念學習成效的影響之研究
作者: 黃界堯;陳錦章
贡献者: 物理學系
关键词: 物理運動概念;情境式教學;認知學徒制;the concept of motion;situated teaching;cognitive apprenticeship
日期: 2007
上传时间: 2011-03-25T08:05:18Z
出版者: 中華民國科學教育學會
摘要: 本研究旨在探討高職物理課實施情境式「認知學徒制」之教學策略進行教學中,可能遭遇的困難及解決的方法,此教學策略對於學生學習物理運動概念之學習成效的影響,以及學生對情境式「認知學徒制」教學策略的感受。研究對象為以研究者所任教高職一年級的一個班級為實驗組,另取一班為控制組,以比較學習成效之差異。
本研究以準實驗研究方式進行學習成效的評估,同時以研究者自行發展的研究工具進行資料的收集,包含:前測試卷、後測試卷、學習策略測驗、高職基礎物理運動學學習單、晤談大綱、物理學習感受問卷等,配合以「認知學徒制」教學策略(包含建模、教導、提供鷹架並逐漸撤除、闡明、反省、探究等教學方法)之教學設計進行學習,以物理運動學概念相關的單元為一課程主題,進行實驗教學並收集研究資料。
主要研究結果如下:
一、以前測成績為共變數、班級為自變數、後測成績為依變數,進行單因子共變數分析,分析結果實驗組的學習成效高於控制組,且達顯著差異水準,顯示情境式認知學徒制教學策略確實能提升學生的學習成效。
二、學生認為老師的「講解」與「引導」(建模)簡單明瞭,容易抓住學習的重點;學習單上的「提示」(鷹架)有助於學生找到解題的方向;「個人想法」與「小組討論」(闡明)可以讓學生發現自己的錯誤,並學習到不同的解題方法;而「個人反省」與「引申概念」(反省)的部份,對學生物理概念的澄清與增進是有幫助的。
三、教學過程中有些組別討論較不熱烈,經過研究者依據「教導」教學策略,責成各小組長及各組討論較為熱烈的學生,帶領其他較沉默或被動的同學,進行討論之後,獲得改善。同時,研究者也觀察各組並適時地介入引導與提供鷹架,可即刻解決小組討論時,各組員思緒枯竭的困境,使得小組討論的活動更加順暢、有效率。
四、研究者在教學中發現,學生在「引申概念」(探究)方面較沒有自己的想法;因此,研究者詳細舉例說明引申概念的意義,並強調每一個問題解決的策略,都可能有許多種。經過研究者教導之後,學生透過腦力激盪,可以列舉出各種可能的解決策略,並分析出最佳的策略。
五、經由學習策略測驗及個別晤談可知,有學生學習到解決問題的不同方法或策略,並能依問題的特性選擇最適當的解決方案;因此,情境式「認知學徒制」的教學策略可以幫助學生習得問題解決的學習策略。
The purpose of the study was to investigate the difficulties encountered with implementing ‘situated cognitive apprenticeship’ teaching strategies in vocational high school physics classes as well as the effects of this teaching strategy on students’ learning the concept of motion, and students’ perception of the teaching strategy. The participants sampled for this study were the first grade students of two classes from one vocational high school. To find out the differences of students’ learning performances, one class was assigned to the experimental group and the other class was the controlled group.
In this study, the assessments of learning performance were conducted in a way of quasi-experimental design. Comparing with traditional teaching strategies used in controlled group, teaching strategies of cognitive apprenticeship (modeling, coaching, scaffolding and fading, articulation, reflection, exploration) was implemented in experimental group. Data were collected using pretests, posttests, learning strategy tests, worksheets, interview, and feedback questionnaires.
The results of the study showed that:
1. The performance of motion concept achievement test in the experimental group was significantly better than the controlled group according to the analysis of One-Way ANCOVA. It showed that situated cognitive apprenticeship teaching strategies could facilitate students’ concept learning.
2. Students believed that they could understand the key concept easily through teachers’ coaching and modeling. The tips (scaffolding) worksheets provided students with a simple way of finding answers. In addition, students found out their mistakes and learned different ways of solving problems by individual thoughts (students’ beliefs) and peer discussion (articulation). Students’ reflection was quite beneficial for the clarification and improved understanding of concepts learned in physics.
3. At the beginning some groups showed little participation in discussion; therefore, each group leader and actively participating students were encouraged by the researcher’s coaching to help promote involvement among shy students in the discussion. The researcher, also intervened and provided scaffolding to make the group discussion more fluent and more efficient when students were struggling.
4. The instructors made explanations and specific examples of the meaning of ‘exploration’, and stress that more than one problem-solving solution can be found out for any problem. After instruction, students can find out many problem-solving strategies with brainstorming and group discussion and figure out one of their solutions was the best.
5. Through the learning strategies test and individual interview, the findings indicated that some students could learn different problem-solving strategies and produce the best solutions to the various problems. In other words, situated cognitive apprenticeship teaching strategies can facilitate students’ learning of strategies of problem-solving.
關聯: 中華民國第二十三屆科學教育學術研討會, 高雄師大, 2007年
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