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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.ncue.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/9880

Title: 台灣地區高中地圖教育之理論探究:地形圖之教與學
Authors: 李明燕
Contributors: 地理學系
Keywords: 知識場;地形圖;地圖教育
Knowledge field;Topographic map;Map education
Date: 2000
Issue Date: 2012-04-30T02:23:26Z
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學
Abstract: 過去十餘年來,國內外興起一波波的教育改革方案,多元化與開放性的思潮漸次影響全國各級教育的發展。中學的許多科目正面臨許多改變,如國中社會科統合性課程的建構,高中教材編輯權與考試科目選擇權的開放,許多出版社參與教材的編輯,未來的大學入學考試也允許學生可以在一定範圍內選擇考試科目,而這些也都一波波地衝擊到地理課程在國中與高中教育的定位。地理學界若能面對挑戰,並給予回應,化危機為轉機,地理仍將是學校教育的重要課程。由於地圖是現代生活的工具,也是地理教學的重要課題,地圖教與學的探究實有其意義。然地圖種類繁多,當今應採何種地圖為佳,研究者認為是地形圖,因其蘊涵許多量化的資料,用圖者可以藉此瞭解地形等訊息,學生可藉此深入了解地圖的特性,故本研究即以地形圖為探究對象,並認為下列課題亟需先加以澄清,方易在學校教育落實:
1.國內外中小學地形圖教材與評量有何的特色?
2.國內高中教師如何教授地形圖?
3.國內學生判讀地形圖的基本能力如何?
4.國內高中師生對地形圖應用於地理教學有何意見?
為回答上述課題,本研究先以知識場的概念分析地形圖判讀的核心概念,並以自行設計的5次實驗測試與3次的問卷,搜集學生的作答反應與學習經驗;同時也進行教學實驗與觀察紀錄,了解教師的教學策略與學生的學習行為;最後再據此彙整為地圖教學的理論模式。研究結果如下:
1.教師講授地形圖有活動式、隱喻與類推式、命題式與圖說式等方法,但如果地形圖僅屬於輔助性教材,僅學業成績較佳的學生有較好的表現。
2.地形圖的核心概念是「高度」;學生判讀地形圖需具備數學運算、邏輯思考與空間視覺思考等能力。
3.影響學生判讀地形圖能力的因素,包括地圖的印刷色彩、地圖比例尺的大小、平常戶外活動的經驗、對地圖所涵蓋區域的熟悉度以及學業成績等。
4.多數師生對基本地形圖應用於教學並不排斥,因可豐富地理知識,讓地理學習更具實用性。
In the past decade, both international trends on educational reform and claims for educational multiplicity and opening have influenced the development of Taiwan’s education at all levels. The education of many subjects in high school is undergoing great change, such as the construction of integrated curriculum, publishers’ right to design instructional materials and high school students’ choice of examination subjects. All of these have great impact on the teaching of high school Geography. At the junior high level, Geography will be integrated into the subject of Social Science, whereas at the senior high level, students will not be obligated to study all materials of Geography. Both of these might possibly minimize the role of Geography. Under such circumstance, the academic filed should actively turn this seemingly declining situation into opportunities for reforming Geography education. Since map is an important tool in the modern life and plays an important role in Geography education, it is important to explore the value and potential of map learning and teaching in high school. Since topographic maps contain much quantitative data, such as information about geomorphology, students can learn to understand the charateristics of maps through them. Therefore, the researcher tried exploring how topographic maps are taught and learned in Taiwan’s senior high school. The research questions of this study are as follows:
1. What are the features of instructional materials and testing content of topographic maps in Taiwan and other countries?
2. How do the teachers in Taiwan’s senior high schools teach topographic maps?
3. What are the students’ basic knowledge of learning topographic maps?
4. What are the senior high school teachers’ and students’ opinions of the instruction and evaluation of topographic maps?
In order to answer these questions, First the concept of “knowledge field” was adopted to analyze the core knowledge of topographic maps. Following this, a series of experiments were designed to collect students’ test performance, and 3 questionnaires were tested to capture their learning experiences. Several instructional experiments and class observation by the researcher were also conducted to understand the teachers’ instructional strategies and students’ learning behavior. Finally, the research findings were synthesized into a theoretical framework of the instruction and learning of topographic maps.
The results of this research can be summarized as below:
1. The instructional strategies of topographic maps include activity design, metaphor & reasoning embedment, test design, and direct explanation through pictures. If the topographic maps are introduced to the students as supplementary instructional materials, the students with better perofrmance have more positive atttitude toward learning.
2. Altitude is the core concept of topographic maps reading. The students need capabilities of calculation, logical thinking and spatial and visual thinking in order to read topographic maps.
3. The fators critical to the students’ reading of topographic maps include the printing colors of the maps, the size of scale, their outdoor activity experiences, their familiarity with the map areas and their academic performance.
4. Most teachers and students have positive attitudes toward the integration of topographic maps into Geographic text books. Because topographic maps could enrich their geographic knowledge, and make their learning more practical.
Relation: 博士; 國立台灣師範大學地理研究所
Appears in Collections:[地理學系] 專書

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