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题名: 科學本質在科學教育上的啟示與作法
Revelation and Application of the Nature of Science in Science Education
作者: 翁秀玉;段曉林
贡献者: 科學教育研究所
关键词: 科學教育
The nature of science
日期: 1997-06
上传时间: 2012-11-22T07:43:26Z
出版者: 國立臺灣師範大學科學教育中心
摘要: 長久以來「增進學生對科學本質的瞭解」一直是科教領域所重視的目標,有鑒於科學哲學觀點的演進,已由以往邏輯實證主義轉向為當代主流的建構主義,而促使科學本質內涵的改變。但是從過去實徵性研究發現,學生、科學教師及教科書並未跟上時代的潮流。因此科教學者認為提升學生對科學本質的瞭解必須朝教師、課程、學生全方位的改善。本文除了介紹科學本質的內涵,也綜合相關文獻,針對「教師如何於課室教學中提升學生的科學本質」之作法,提出四點建議:(1) 學生極難由科學活動中主動思考科學本質的內涵,因此教師必須主動幫助學生連結課程內容與科學本質的內涵,而非讓學生自行連結;(2) 配合材注入科教學史的素材,有助於學生瞭解科學知識的形成過程,對科學面貌有較完整的認識;(3) 教師應營造一個類似於科學家探究的學習情境,而非僅是讓學生操作食譜式的實驗步驟;(4) 教師不僅要增進自身對科學本質的瞭解與傳達科學本質的教學能力,更重要的是必須將科學本質融入其教學信念中,唯有重視它,才可能表現在課室教學中。
It has been a perennial object in science education to help students develop adequate conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The philosophy of science has been transferred from logical positivism into contemporary constructism, and changes peoples' views of NOS in recent years. However, past researches have shown that both teachers and students don't posses the adequate understanding of NOS. Science educators recommend that we should progress an overall reformation including the perspectives of curriculum, teacher, and student. This article first reports the substance of NOS, and then introduces four ways suggested from the literature to develop students' conceptions of NOS in science classroom: (1) It's not easy for students to connect the content knowledge and NOS by their own, so teacher should help their students foster such ability through learning activities. (2) The infusion of history of science into scientific curriculum can improve students' views in NOS. (3) Teacher sould build a learning environment of scientific inquiry for students to understand how scientists do science. (4) Teachers' beliefs in scicncc teaching should be oriented into emphasizing the value of the substance inclusion of NOS, such change might make teachers willing to teach NOS in their science class.
關聯: 科學教育月刊, 201: 2-16
显示于类别:[科學教育研究所] 期刊論文

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