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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.ncue.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/15500

Title: 族群、性別、宗教倫理---美國早期文學之研究
Ethnicity, Gender and Religious Ethics---A Study of Early American Literatures
Authors: 張月珍
Contributors: 英語學系
Keywords: 族裔;宗教倫理;俘虜敘事;自傳;傳道;改信敘述
Captivity narrative;Autobiography;Ethnicity;Gender;Religious ethics
Date: 2002
Issue Date: 2013-02-05T02:27:36Z
Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
Abstract: 本研究以美國十七世紀白人女性 Mrs.Rowlandson 的俘擄敘事及十九世紀初期印第安教士William Apess 的自傳,傳道敘述
及其改信基督教之心理歷程故事為代表,援引後殖民觀念,族裔理論,性別,宗教倫理概念,探討殖民時期以降歐洲移民與美國原住民間互動關係因宗教,性別,族裔差異所滋演之問題。首先,Mrs.Rowlandson 的俘擄敘事一向為歷史學者,民俗誌及人類學者參照,微觀美國早期著名印第安人菲立普王與白人戰役(King Philips's War)時期白人與印第安原住民之間互動關係,且為一窺原住民生活習俗之重要文本,而Mrs.Rowlandson 敘事中所傳遞的基督宗教信念,更成為當時代讀者重要的教義腳本,引領讀者認知基督宗教對信徒試煉之意義,然而其以被異族俘虜為素材,著墨於個人在異族環境中經歷之精神與肉體折磨,無形中強化了異族之「異」,野蠻與邪惡。幸而Mrs.Rowlandson 以女性謙柔敏銳,善感且堅毅的態度,及女性特殊技藝及氣質,助其溶入印第安社群中,持平觀照印第安人感知生活,人性化的面貌;同時Mrs.Rowlandson 能於困厄之際,援引基督教義,賦予其失去親蜜家庭連結及個人行動自由等經驗新一層的宗教意義。其個人記實是以有了多面向的意義。
宗教在美國早期族裔的互動中無疑扮演了舉足輕重的角色。白人學者及諸多美國原住民宗教及文化學者皆不諱言的指出,美國
種族的岐視現象與侵入美洲大陸的歐洲殖民者對基督教執著於歐洲中心的詮釋方式有著密不可分的關係,認為聖經是歐洲殖民者賴以合理化其壓迫征服行為,擴張其殖民版圖,滋養天命說,及白人優越論的源頭文本。是以,原住民宗教文化學者皆主張,原住民應以迦南人之眼閱讀聖經,以在聖經詮釋中找到其位置與視野(Weaver 7; 19)。唯有如此,在跨越文化及宗教的視野中,原住民學者維護其部族自主的本質立場才得以進一步得到強化與宣揚。十九世紀美國原住民傳教士威廉 阿培士(William Apess)自傳及改信敘事作品中,即展現出美國原住民基督徒在族裔與宗教認同衝突中,尋求族裔自主性的渴望。跨越雙文化並為西方宗教的傳播者與代言人,阿培士身陷極度的認同與抗拒的矛盾。在其自傳與佈道中,阿培士以高分貝的語言修辭嚴辭批評基督教傳教士言行不一的虛偽宗教行徑,質疑白人履踐基督教義中愛人如鄰教義之能力。他選擇以逆轉論述的方式,顛覆長期以來白人以文明/野蠻對立的二元思考,以證明原住民較白人和善人性的一面。同時,他將原住民與以色列的猶太人受壓迫及放逐失落家園的處境相比擬,揭開基督教殖民傳播背後所隱藏之複雜的宗教與種族意識形態,挑戰了白人的種族主義及其對原住民的歧視待遇。阿培士極具原住民族裔意識與觀點的的論述使其自傳與傳道語言充滿批判性與抗爭性。
Applying concepts from gender studies, religious studies, postcolonial studies and ethnic studies for detailed textual analysis, this research projects choose typical genres of writing in the early American literature--captivity narratives, autobiographies, and conversion narratives as focus of studies. White Rowlandson's captivity narrative, and William Apess's works are drawn upon to illuminate the interfaces of gender, ethnicity and religious ethics. The first part of the project explores Mary Rowlandson's captivity narrative, showing a white woman's perspective in an age when white-Indian relations were tense. The second part of the project studies the ethnic consciousness of William Apess, a mixedblood Native Christian missionary who straddled two cultures in the early nineteenth century. Apess's ethnic consciousness is crystallized in his poignant critiques of Christianity that white racists upheld to suppress Indian freedom and rights during Manifest Destiny period. Through ironical accounts of his personal conversion experience and his observations on disputable practices of Christian doctrines pertaining to the treatment of other races, Apess uncovers the complicated and ambivalent ethnic attitudes intermingled with contradictory Christian mores. Proposing to reverse whiteness into ethnicity in his autobiography and sermons, Apess in effect attempts to unsettle the
dominant ethnic as well as religious ideologies by writing and articulating his ethnic subjectivity into genres marginalized in the Western literary tradition.
Relation: 國科會計畫, 計畫編號: NSC91-2411-H018-003;研究期間: 9108-9207
Appears in Collections:[英語學系] 國科會計畫

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