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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.ncue.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/9813

Title: 咆哮女郎與沈默女人:英國文藝復興戲劇中的女性語言反叛
Roaring Girls and Silent Women: Female Verbal Unruliness in Early Modern English Drama
Authors: 儲湘君
Contributors: 英語學系
Keywords: 《馴悍記》;《咆哮女郎》;《沈默女人》;反叛;父權主義;女性特質;女性聲音;沈默
The Taming of the Shrew;The Roaring Girl;Epicoene or The Silent Woman;Unruliness;Patriarchy;Femininity;Female voice;Silence
Date: 2005
Issue Date: 2012-04-27T02:01:22Z
Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
Abstract: 文藝復興時期,父權主義者利用行為
手冊、民謠、戲劇及神壇講道再三告誡女
性,女性必須服從、貞潔與沈默。女人將
此訓誡內化,並據以建構自我認知與性別
角色。父權主義者規範了單一、固定的女
性特質以確保男尊女卑的父權體制。然
而,戲劇中的「惡女」(unruly women)卻
大膽抗拒傳統性別思想。
本計畫擬以《馴悍記》、《咆哮女郎》、
《沈默女人》等劇中悍婦與咆哮女人的戲
劇人物類型探討文藝復興戲劇所呈現女性
語言反叛之意涵。她們正符合厭惡女人者
所想像的惡女形象。她們的語言不斷探測
性別的界限。劇作家透過這些惡女,對父
權主義者所建構的女人特質與地位提出質
疑。這些劇本就女性的語言與沈默、性別
政治、父權權威等議題提出討論。
藉由唯物女性主義(materialist
feminism)的批評觀剖析英國文藝復興時
期的戲劇與社會歷史文件中父權意識對女
性言語無所不在的掌控,透露出男性意欲
掌控、駕馭女人的情結以及對女性言詞反
叛、不受約束的恐懼。父權主義者以維護
社會秩序為由,對違反規範的惡女施加頭
枷(bridle)、壓舌器(gag)、坐板凳浸水
(ducking)等懲罰,實則男性為了鞏固父
權優勢,祭出暴力,逼迫女人臣服。
女性被迫沈默是因:(一)嚴厲懲罰的
威脅(如頭枷與壓舌器),(二)女性受傳
統社會規範的制約,(三)語言交換的權力
運作,(四)男性權威人物的介入等。父權
主義者大力壓抑女性的聲音、剝奪她們的
發言權,正反映出這些女人的確威脅到父
權體制。她們不理傳統的訓誡,更不睬社
會規範,勇於追求獨立、創造自我,並將
女性特質從同質化的貞潔、沈默與順從擴
2
充至異質化的獨立、自主與反叛。她們的
聲音無疑鬆動了當時主宰社會思想之父權
意識的穩定性。
In early modern England, pamphlets,
conduct manuals, ballads, plays, or sermons
from the pulpits all exhort women to be
obedient and submissive to their husbands
and fathers. These injunctions are
internalized to a great extent by women in
their conception of themselves and their
proper roles within a patriarchal framework.
Women are controlled by the fixed cultural
construction of feminine virtue in way to
stabilize the position of male supremacy.
Yet, a resistance to these fixed, subordinate
ideas toward female obedience, chastity, and
virtue can also be seen from the
representations of unruly female characters.
This study explores representations of
female verbal unruliness through three
character types—the shrew (scolding), the
roaring girl (brawling), and the disobedient
wife (dominating her husband)—in The
Taming of the Shrew, The Roaring Girl, and
Epicoene or The Silent Woman, along with
relevant plays of Shakespeare and his
contemporaries. These characters fit the
misogynist images of women whose voices
test the boundaries of gender identity.
Through the voices of these unruly women
characters, playwrights test the assumptions
of a long tradition of patriarchy on the
nature and status of women. These plays
are deeply engaged with questions of speech,
gender, and authority, by presenting
women’s speech and silence in relation to
male authority.
Employing a materialist feminist
approach, I draw on early modern English
plays and social history to show the
patriarchal obsession in the control of
female speeches and its fear of female
verbal unruliness. I would like to focus on
the horrifying controls placed on women’s
transgressive tongues, which are reflected in
the uses of bridles and gags, and cucking
stools in disciplining convicted shrews,
scolds, and disobedient wives, in the hope to
excavate the implications of such male
obsession and fear. These rituals of
punishment are often adopted under the
pretext of communal solidarity. But such
violence almost always exposes the
underlying self-interest for the patriarchal
males who only exploit females.
Factors, contributing to the silencing of
women characters, are the impositions (real
or threatening) of correcting measures
(bridles and gags), the norms that govern
women’s speech in social contexts, the
dynamics of power in speaking situations, or
the interference of a male figure of authority.
The oppressive silencing of women’s voices
suggests that Renaissance women are
conceived to constitute a real threat to the
patriarchal status quo. Disregarding the
traditional injunctions for women to be
chaste, silent, and obedient, these unruly
female characters practice independent
self-fashioning, disrupt rigid social
conventions, or defy their male superiors.
3
They are seldom mute, silent, or quiet.
They expand the spectrum of femininity to
incorporate heterogeneous elements of
female independence, autonomy, and
unruliness. Their voices will no doubt
catalyze fissures in the dominant ideology.
Relation: 國科會計畫, 計畫編號: NSC94-2411-H018-007; 計畫期間: 9408-9507
Appears in Collections:[英語學系] 國科會計畫

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